The village has a long history and is mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086, when the population was 39 households, which, at that time, was considered very large. The Tenant in Chief in 1086 was the Countess Judith who was a niece of William the Conqueror. The name Boughton comes from Bucca or “goat” farm. The earliest reference to the Manor of Boughton was in the early 11th century, although the settlement is known to pre-date this. The village is rich in archaeological remains, including Saxon and Roman sites. There are also two barrows, one at Bunkers Hill, and the other at Boughton Grange. The site of an old motte and bailey is believed to lie within Boughton Pocket Park.
In the 18th century the estate was bought by the Earl of Strafford. He had a passion for landscape structures and follies and is recognised as an amateur architect. All the gothic-style follies still standing in Boughton Park were created during his ownership. The Boughton Estate then passed into the Howard-Vyse family, who eventually sold the whole village at auction in 1927. The present church was built in the 14th century as a Chantry and Boughton Hall was constructed in 1844 near the footprint of the original manor, where Charles I played bowls in 1647. The Methodist chapel was built in 1804 and flourished between the wars but with attendance declining, it closed in the
In the 18th century the estate was bought by the Earl of Strafford.
The present village hall was built in 1967, replacing the original hall built in 1927. There were originally two public houses, The Lion and The Griffin and the present Whyte Melville public house was opened in 1928.
The ruined church of St John the Baptist lies on the east side of Boughton Green. Its tower and spire fell in 1786. Boughton Fair, reputed to be the biggest in the country, was held here from 1351 until 1916. On the Green stood a shepherd’s turf maze, thought to be of pagan origin. It was dug up during military exercises in 1914.